You can create articles from a combination of existing page items within a layout, including images, graphics, or text. Once an article has been created, page items can be added, removed, or reordered. While articles can be created manually by dragging one or more page items to an article in the Articles panel, there are also mechanisms for adding bulk content to an article, including adding all selected content to an article or adding an entire document to an article.
People with visual disabilities cannot discern graphics and images, so accessible PDF files need to include alternate text descriptions that assistive technology such as screen readers or text-to-speech engines can vocalize in order to describe the image to the user. It's easier to add alt text to images in InDesign CC, especially if alt text has already been added to the metadata for an image in Adobe Bridge, or has been added to images from files imported from Microsoft Word or another application that writes XML metadata. After you have added alt text to an image, the alt text stays with that image as you design your layout.
The Object Export Options can be applied to both graphic and text frames, as well as to groups. You can also apply conversion options to text frames, which is useful when you want to control the quality of rasterization applied to text effects like Drop Shadows, in the exported HTML and EPUB files.
From Microsoft Word:When InDesign users import Word documents with graphic images that have had the alt text assigned in Word, the alt text descriptions from Word are converted to native InDesign alt text. (Note:Currently supported only on the Windows® version of Word).
From XMP(Title | Description | Headline): Common XMP metadata fields are used to capture text about the image or graphic. If the XMP data is updated in another application like Adobe Bridge, updating the link in InDesign results in the alt text string being updated.
From Other XMP:This option should be used only by XMP experts. It requires understanding the XMP path namespace and the array value. For example, the Bridge user interface supports IPTC Core, which contains a field titled "IPTC Subject Code." If this field is where the alt text string is stored, then in InDesign, the value would have to be written as "Iptc4xmpCore:SubjectCode." For adventurous mortals, in Adobe Photoshop®, you can view the full namespace in an image under File Info > Raw Data.
The alt text you entered is included whenever you export your InDesign file as an EPUB, HTML, or PDF document. However, it is not added to the metadata for the image file itself, so you'll need to enter it again if you use the image in a different document. To ensure the alt text remains with the image, enter it as metadata in Adobe Bridge.
Using Adobe Bridge, you can assign alt text to an image by making an entry in the Description field of the IPTC Core for XMP Metadata. To display this field, select the Metadata view in Adobe Bridge. Under the Metadata panel, expand the IPTC Core entry and click the pencil icon to the far right of the description field.
Create your document using paragraph styles (Window > Styles > Paragraph Styles). These aren't just a good idea-they're required for accessibility. Use them consistently throughout the document to define styles for all text, including headings and sub-headings. For headings, use styles that indicate the heading level (e.g., Heading1, Heading2) within the organizational structure of the document (headings should form an outline of the document).
Achieving this kind of accessibility requires tagging all document content based on its hierarchical structure (headings, paragraphs, lists, tables, and so on) and ordering the content in a linear path from start to finish. An additional requirement for accessible documents is identifying nontext content, such as graphics and images, in context and describing what is shown.
Screen readers can only indicate the presence of an image. Conveying what the image depicts requires providing alternative text (alt text). With the Object Export Options in InDesign, you can specify alt text from metadata in an image file or add custom alt text to any image, graphic, or group of objects in a layout.
Defining export tags in a paragraph style creates an association between the text using that style and its role in the semantic structure of the PDF document. You can set any paragraph style to one of eight basic PDF tags.
Images in an accessible PDF document require alternative text so that the image can be described by a screen reader or assistive device. You can add alt text for an image through the XML Structure pane or with Object Export Options (Object > Object Export Options). This dialog is non-modal, so it can remain open as you work in the document, allowing you to move quickly from image to image and assign metadata without repeatedly closing and opening the dialog.
The XMP metadata for an image is available as potential alt text in InDesign. Specifying alt text from XMP metadata is the best choice in most cases, because the link between the alt text and the metadata in the file is dynamic. If the metadata changes, alt text is updated when you update the image link in your InDesign document. Not including alt tags for all of your images will result in errors later in the workflow when you run the Acrobat accessibility check.
Each InDesign frame and object group displays a small blue square on its top edge. To anchor an object in an accessible location in the text flow without changing the original position of the object, click and hold the blue square, and then drag it to the desired location within the text and release. The blue square changes to an anchor icon indicating that the object is anchored.
Cross-references, hyperlinks, and bookmarks are conveniences to sighted readers, but are also essential navigation tools for the visually impaired. These navigation mechanisms are the means by which users with disabilities move through a document and get an overview of its content and how that content is organized. A table of contents (TOC) generated in InDesign can add bookmarks automatically when the Create PDF Bookmarks option is selected in the Table of Contents dialog. You can also add custom bookmarks independent of a dynamic TOC in the Bookmarks panel (Window > Interactive > Bookmarks). You can link bookmarks to either text anchors (bookmarks created when specific destination text is selected) or pages (bookmarks created when viewing a page in InDesign with no text selected).
With form-creation features in InDesign, there is support for tagging of certain interactive elements, such as form fields and buttons. An exported InDesign form contains the necessary (annotation) tags to make it accessible in the resulting PDF document.InDesign supports creation of checkboxes, combo and list boxes, radio buttons, text fields, and signature fields, all of which are created in the Buttons and Forms panel (Window > Interactive > Buttons and Forms). Each form element has both a name value and a description value that must be part of its definition. The description is essential for accessibility, because it acts as both the tooltip and as the alt text for the form item. The form can also have a visible label (for example, Name, Company, Phone) on the page, but as a user tabs from field to field or box to box, only the information assigned to the form element is read out; the adjacent text is not.
Alt text can be read by screen readers, and helps people who are blind or who have low vision understand what images and other objects are in a document. You can add alt text to objects, such as pictures, clip art, charts, tables, shapes, SmartArt, embedded objects, and audio or video objects.
Add accessibility tags to PDF files to make sure that people who use screen readers and other assistive technologies can read and navigate a document with Tables of Contents, hyperlinks, bookmarks, alt text, and so on. Accessibility tags also make it possible to read the information on different devices, such as large type displays, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and mobile phones. In Microsoft 365 for Windows, Microsoft 365 for Mac, and Office for the web, you can add tags automatically when you save a file in PDF format.
The best format for alt text is sufficiently descriptive but doesn't contain any spammy attempts at keyword stuffing. If you can close your eyes, have someone read the alt text to you, and imagine a reasonably accurate version of the image, you're on the right track.
This alt text is a better alternative because it is far more descriptive of what's in the image, while remaining concise. This isn't just a stack of "pancakes" (as the first alt text example demonstrated); it's a stack of blueberry pancakes with a dusting of powdered sugar!
Neither of these examples are recommended. The first line of code actually doesn't contain any alt text at all (notice the quotes are empty), while the second example demonstrates keyword stuffing in alt text.
Alt text is a tenet of accessible web design. Its original (and still primary) purpose is to describe images to visitors who are unable to see them. This includes screen readers and browsers that block images, but it also includes users who are sight-impaired or otherwise unable to visually identify an image. Including alt text with your images ensures all users, regardless of visual ability, can appreciate the content on your site.
The use case is an image that has callouts which are text and the final output is Fixed Layout epub. For Accessibility, I'd like to assign Alt Text which is descriptive of the visual as a whole instead of the screen reader reading live text (in the callouts) and then Alt Text on the image. Is there a way in InDesign to "group" text boxes and an image to assign Alt Text? Thank you.
Bevi, thank you for the reply. One follow up query, please. It is my understanding that keeping text live (instead of flattening it into an image) has the advantage of preserving readability when zoomed in. Is this a factor at all? 2b1af7f3a8